organization , big or small, shall look for quality
input (materials) from suppliers to have the desired
output or use. For this reason, it devises ways to
control the incoming materials by having a check system
on quantity , quality and readiness for use.
Control on incoming materials is exercised through
Inspection by the purchaser.
Need For Inspection:
Inspection is an important aspect of Integrated
Materials Management. It is an adjunct to the
purchase function to ensure that the incoming materials of right
quality are procured for use.
quality has numerous meanings. The most appropriate
meaning of quality in the present
context is “CONFORMANCE TO ORDERED SPECIFICATION &
USE”, whether for products or services.
the nature, criticality & value of
items, inspection is conducted either at supplier’s
premises or at plant stores after receipt.
There are several ways of carrying out inspection
Pre Dispatch Inspection :
This is inspection before dispatch of material.
Usually specified in the Purchase Order (PO) , the
inspection is carried out at
supplier’s premises (works). Supplier gives an Inspection
Request (IR) to the inspection agency
mentioned in the PO. On receipt of IR, the inspecting
officer visits the supplier’s premises along with
documents necessary for inspecting such as copy of
PO, drawing, specification etc.
following checks are conducted
depending on the nature of item:
Physical testing such as hardness, pressure test, load
Electrical and other on-bed testings such as High voltage test, Insulation
resistance test etc.
The accepted materials are marked by
stamping/punching/stickers/ seal/tag etc as a mark of
acceptance, The supplier is asked to deliver the same to
the consignee as mentioned in the
Stage Inspection / Final Inspection
For critical items, it is required to conduct stage
inspection of semi-finished items (such as
castings, forgings etc) at suppliers premises.
cases, the supplier gives an interim
Inspection Request to the inspection agency.
stage inspection, sample is collected by
the inspecting officer for Chemical analysis / Physical
testing at either their own facility or
at 3rd party locations.
On receipt of test results,
conformance to specification is verified &
clearance is given to the supplier for further
processing of the item.
After readiness of the material in all respect &
internal checking, the supplier gives the final
Inspection Request to the inspection agency. In some
critical cases, joint inspection by
Indenter & Inspection is carried out at supplier’s
Document Inspection :
Sometimes and usually for very standard ,off the shelf
items, inspection can be carried out through the
verification of supplier given certificates such
as Material Test Certificate (MTC),
Manufacturing Certificate (Mfg. TC), Guarantee
Certificate (GC) etc. After ensuring conformance of
materials to the ordered specification
in all respect, Inspection Certificate (IC) is issued by
the inspecting officer to the supplier.
Stores / Receipt Inspection :
Majority of items are inspected through this route.
Materials are received in the receiving bays of Stores.
Such items are usually
accepted based on visual examination &
verification of documents.
Materials in the receiving bay are
segregated into several categories, based on their
quality control status and destination. Procedures in
receiving provide for storage and transport of
material in each category.
The major categories are :
Awaiting inspection – This category consists of
material that has been received and is awaiting
inspection before being moved into stock.
Acceptance upon certification – This category
consists of material that may be accepted pending
Rework – In this category are materials that are
defective and must be reworked.
Return – This category contains materials that are
defective and will be returned to the supplier for
credit or replacement.
Materials to be tested – This category consists of
materials which have been received and are
awaiting delivery to the using/testing department.
Third Party Inspection :
In case of specialized items, which require special
proficiency for inspection, help of third
party inspection agencies is taken.
Statutory Compliances ( IBR, EXPLOSIVE) :
In case of items, which require approval of statutory
authority such as IBR (Indian Boiler
Regulation), CCE (Chief Controller of Explosives) etc,
verification & correlation of
documents with the materials is done by the inspection
agency before acceptance.
Quality Complaint Redressal
If materials after issue to the user department is found
to be having defects such as
dimensional deviation, fitness problem etc, the supplier
is asked to
supply free replacement against such
defects. If there is a pre-mature failure of
the material, joint investigation is carried
out by the indenter & inspection agency. If
it is established that, the pre-mature
failure has occurred due to use of wrong
material or faulty workmanship, the supplier
is asked to either rectify the defects (if
feasible) or supply free replacement.